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2011 Publications

Seventy-five percent of National Football League teams use pregame hyperhydration with intravenous Fitzsimmons S, Tucker A, Martins D. - last modified 2013-07-29 09:48
Clin J Sport Med. 2011 May;21(3):192-9. doi: 10.1097/JSM.0b013e31820f3612.



To determine the number of National Football League (NFL) teams using pregame hyperhydration with intravenous fluid (IVF), the most common protocols for using the IVF, the complications from this routine, and the perceived efficacy of this treatment.


Cross-sectional survey study.


National Football League.


The head athletic trainer from all 32 NFL teams received and completed the survey.


A survey designed to answer the aforementioned topics.


Number of teams using IVF to hyperhydrate euvolemic players before NFL games.


All teams (100%, 32 of 32) responded. Seventy-five percent (24 of 32) of NFL teams used pregame hyperhydration with IVF. On average, 5 to 7 players per team per game received IVF. Players received an average of 1.5 L of fluid, an average of 2.5 hours before the game. When the athletic trainers were asked to mark all the reasons why they use pregame hyperhydration with IVF, the most commonly cited reason was muscle cramps (23 of 24). However, player request was the number one answer (10 of 24) when the athletic trainers were asked to mark only the primary reason for giving IVF. Of the 27 head athletic trainers who had used pregame hyperhydration with IVF in the past, 13 (48%) reported complications.


Pregame hyperhydration is a common practice in the NFL. Because pregame hyperhydration with IVF is often a player- driven routine and has potential complications, more scientific studies are needed to determine its true efficacy.