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ENERGY BALANCE AND WEIGHT CONTROL (MALE AND FEMALE): ENDOCRINE Gleim GW, Glace BWNicholas Institute of Sports Medicine and Athletic Trauma, New York, NY - last modified 2013-02-10 00:00
In: Endocrine Considerations in Energy Balance. Ed. M. Warren.


Evolution in all species is dependent to a large degree on metabolic efficiency for, without a balance of energy intake with energy utilization, growth and reproduction are not possible. Because homo-sapiens has been subjected to these same forces for millions of years, availability of energy supply will profoundly influence behavior and activity in all humans. Environmental and supply factors today make energy surplus a real possibility for most humans. Indeed, unless dietary habits are controlled and physical activity is a steady component of daily life, an energy surfeit is likely. It is estimated that one third of all Americans are 20% over ideal body weight. This stress is not without effects on multiple hormonal systems in the body. Alternatively, there are situations where energy expenditure exceeds supply, and adjustments to this stress often result in and from extreme changes in hormone activity and metabolic rate. Some of these changes are significant threats to normal health and may impact well-being for long periods following the caloric challenge. This chapter attempts to make sense of the current literature addressing the interaction of energy balance and various hormone systems in the body.