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1992 Publications

Monitoring Training Status In Professional Ballet Dancersby M. Liederbach, A.T.C., G. W. Gleim. Ph.D., J. A. Nicholas. M.D.Nicholas Institute of Sports Medicine and Athletic Trauma Lenox Hill Hospital, New York City, N.Y., U.S.A. - last modified 2013-02-10 00:00
J Sports Med Phys Fitness 1992;32:187-95


Methods of non-invasive monitoring of training status for prevention of staleness in athletes and dancers need to be developed and evaluated. In order to monitor physiologic and psychologic changes which may result from overstraing, we measured urinary excretion of free norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E) and mood states over 5 weeks of an intensive ballet season in 12 (6 men, 6 women) professional dancers.

First morning urine voids (AM) were collected at the start of the season and following the only off-day each week with final collection on the last day of the season. Additional urine samples were collected before (pre) and after (post) each dancer's subjectively-rated single most difficult performance. Profile of Mood States (POMS) was completed by and collected from each dancer at the same time as the AM urine samples.

NE and E excretions (nanograms per mg creatinine) increased significantly with time (r = 0.91, p < 0.02, and r = 0.94, p < 0.01, respectively) from beginning to end of season, and pre to post (51.1 +/- 7.3 to 115.6 +/- 19.7, p<0.001 and 19.3 +/- 3.2 to 37.7 +/- 4.2, p < 0.001, respectively).

Women had a significantly higher excretion of NE than did men (F=9.33, p=0.014) and no gender differences existed in the excretion of E (F = 0.57, p = 0.484). POMS ratings of fatigue-inertia increased from 8.2 +/- 1.4 to 16.1 +/- 1.9, p=0.009 and vigour-activity decreased from 17.1 +/- 1.7 to 13.2 +/- 1.2, p=0.02 from week 1 to week 4.

Monitoring urinary catecholamines and mood states may be useful tools in assessing training status.